Int. J. of Environment and Waste Management   »   2013 Vol.12, No.2

 

 

Title: Steam-activated carbon prepared from Chrysophyllum albidum seed shell for the adsorption of cadmium in wastewater: kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies

 

Authors: O.S. Amuda; T.I. Edewor; T.J. Afolabi; Yung-Tse Hung

 

Addresses:
Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, 210001, Nigeria
Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, 210001, Nigeria
Department of Chemical Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, 210001, Nigeria
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cleveland State University, 16945 Deerfield Dr., Strongsville, Ohio 4136-6214, USA

 

Abstract: Steam-Activated Carbon (SAC) prepared from shell of the seed of Chrysophyllum albidum was used to adsorb cadmium (Cd) ion from aqueous solution. The sorption process with respect to its equilibria, kinetics and thermodynamics as well as the effects of pH, contact time, adsorbent mass, adsorbate concentration and particle size on adsorption was also studied. The kinetic data and the adsorption process followed first-order rate kinetics; equilibrium sorption data were better represented by Langmuir model than Freundlich. The adsorption capacity calculated from Langmuir isotherm was 150.33 mg Cd g-1 at initial pH of 5.0 at 30°C for the particle size of 1.25 mm with the use of 2.0 g/100 mL adsorbent mass. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectrometry reveals the presence of hydroxyl, carbonyl, amide and phosphate groups that confirm the potential mechanisms of adsorption of the adsorbent. Alkali regeneration of the adsorbent recovered the adsorbed metal ions and restored the adsorbent to its original state.

 

Keywords: Chrysophyllum albidum seed shells; cadmium adsorption; wastewater treatment; waste management; steam activated carbon; kinetics; equilibria; thermodynamics; pH; contact time; adsorbent mass; adsorbate concentration; particle size; Langmuir model.

 

DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2013.055595

 

Int. J. of Environment and Waste Management, 2013 Vol.12, No.2, pp.213 - 229

 

Available online: 31 Jul 2013

 

 

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