Int. J. of Entrepreneurship and Small Business   »   2008 Vol.5, No.2



Title: Toward a paradigm of symbiotic entrepreneurship


Author: Leo Paul Dana, Hamid Etemad, Richard W. Wright


University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
McGill University, 1001 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Canada.
University of California at Los Angeles, Anderson School of Management, 110 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095–1481, USA


Abstract: Entrepreneurship often involves independent firms that compete with one another. In this article, we discuss an alternate entrepreneurship strategy, one involving symbiosis – an approach that allows entrepreneurs and their firms to benefit from a multi-polar distribution of power and control. We believe that this is especially helpful in the process of internationalisation. Rather than focusing on the internationalisation of a centralised firm with a uni-polar distribution of power and control, we suggest that the world is moving toward multi-polar networks of firms. As corporations out-source to smaller, specialised firms, power and control are becoming increasingly divided among independent firms that cooperate voluntarily for increased efficiency and profit. Symbiotic relationships are thus leading to multi-polarity, and we are moving beyond a focus on the firm – toward a focus on relationships with multi-polar networks involving symbiotic relationships.


Keywords: symbiotic entrepreneurship; symbiosis; bazaar; new economy; strategic alliances; cooperation; relationships; symbiotic marketing; multi-polarity; internationalisation; entrepreneurship strategy; multi-polar networks.


DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2008.016587


Int. J. of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 2008 Vol.5, No.2, pp.109 - 126


Available online: 11 Jan 2008



Editors Full text accessPurchase this articleComment on this article