Energy and CO2 emissions as the determinants of countries' productivity with different levels of economic development
by Christina Bampatsou; George Halkos
International Journal of Global Energy Issues (IJGEI), Vol. 40, No. 5, 2017

Abstract: In the present study, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used for the period spanning from 1980 to 2012 and for a total of 32 countries which are classified into four groups, according to their level of development (Developing, BRICS, Developed, G7). DEA allows us to measure technical efficiency under constant and variable returns to scale and also the Malmquist index and its components. Furthermore, we develop an order-α approach for the determination of partial frontiers. An output oriented model is applied. Labour and capital are used as inputs while the GDP index is used as output. Subsequently, energy is incorporated in the model as an additional input and CO2 emissions as undesirable output. A comparison of productivity indices, allows us to highlight the different levels of productivity, before and after the integration of energy and CO2 emissions as additional variables, for each group of countries and therefore their sustainability gaps.

Online publication date: Fri, 29-Sep-2017

The full text of this article is only available to individual subscribers or to users at subscribing institutions.

Existing subscribers:
Go to Inderscience Online Journals to access the Full Text of this article.

Pay per view:
If you are not a subscriber and you just want to read the full contents of this article, buy online access here.

Complimentary Subscribers, Editors or Members of the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Global Energy Issues (IJGEI):
Login with your Inderscience username and password:

    Username:        Password:         

Forgotten your password?

Want to subscribe?
A subscription gives you complete access to all articles in the current issue, as well as to all articles in the previous three years (where applicable). See our Orders page to subscribe.

If you still need assistance, please email