Bleeding sap and leaves of silver birch (Betula pendula) as bioindicators of metal contaminated soils
by Wilfried H.O. Ernst, Hans J.M. Nelissen
International Journal of Environment and Pollution (IJEP), Vol. 33, No. 2/3, 2008

Abstract: Bleeding sap of Betula pendula contained high levels of manganese on soils near ore outcrops and on acid soils, whereas high zinc levels were restricted to metal-mining and metal-smelting areas. The relationships between metal contents of bleeding sap and those of the soils were dependent on the kind of chemical soil extraction. Copper and zinc sap levels had a significantly positive correlation with the aqua regia soil extract, iron and manganese with the CaCl2-extract, and cadmium with the NH4-acetate soil extract. Metal contents of mature leaves were highest in autumn and all, except cadmium, were related in a similar metal-specific way to the same chemical soil extracts as the bleeding sap. Lead levels of sap and leaves had no consistent correlation with type of soil extract. The timing of collection and the advantages of the analysis of bleeding sap versus mature leaves are discussed.

Online publication date: Fri, 11-Jul-2008

The full text of this article is only available to individual subscribers or to users at subscribing institutions.

Existing subscribers:
Go to Inderscience Online Journals to access the Full Text of this article.

Pay per view:
If you are not a subscriber and you just want to read the full contents of this article, buy online access here.

Complimentary Subscribers, Editors or Members of the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Environment and Pollution (IJEP):
Login with your Inderscience username and password:

    Username:        Password:         

Forgotten your password?

Want to subscribe?
A subscription gives you complete access to all articles in the current issue, as well as to all articles in the previous three years (where applicable). See our Orders page to subscribe.

If you still need assistance, please email