Secondary steel mill slags with pulp and paper mill solid residues for soil amendment: mineralogy, relevant physicochemical properties and trace element availability Online publication date: Sat, 23-Aug-2014
by Mikko Mäkelä; Hannu Nurmesniemi; Gary Watkins; Risto Pöykiö; Olli Dahl
International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation (IJMATEI), Vol. 3, No. 1, 2012
Abstract: Inter-industrial utilisation of solid residues for soil amendment was investigated by combining secondary steel mill slags with residuals from a pulp and paper mill. Sample analysis included mineralogical characterisation by X-ray diffraction, relevant physicochemical properties and trace element availability by the original three-stage sequential BCR extraction procedure (CH3COOH, NH2OHHCl and H2O2 + CH3COONH4) and residual fraction determination by acid digestion (USEPA 3051A). Respectively, the pseudo-total concentrations of trace elements were determined according to USEPA method 3051A. Consequently, the alkalinity of the samples (pH values 12.1-12.2) suggests significant buffering and acid neutralisation capacity with liming effect values (34.9%-35.6%, Ca-equivalents, d.w.) comparable to commercial ground limestone. This was supported by XRD, which only revealed the existence of portlandite [Ca(OH) 2] an calcite [CaCO3]. Additionally, the pseudo-total concentrations of trace elements were lower than the respective limit values for EU soil improvers (2006/799/EC). However, Ba and V recovery during sequential extraction (Ba: 40.1-56.0 mgkg1, d.w., by CH3COOH; and V: 72.2-96.5 mgkg1, d.w., by NH2OHHCl) indicates potential phytoavailability.
Online publication date: Sat, 23-Aug-2014
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