Authors: Vasiliki Basdekidou
Addresses: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki/ELKE, University Campus, Egnatia Road, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece
Abstract: The paper is about the inefficiency appearing in leveraged trading instruments with CSR/CSE firms as benchmark index. The subject is important because leveraged ETFs have grown in popularity. The principal target is to introduce a framework for personalised tactics when trading leveraged ETFs. For this purpose, the concept CSR/CSE leverage inefficiency is defined initially as an innovative term benchmarked a 3D array and then the dimensions, functionalities and trading returns of this inefficiency are discussed. The paper's main contribution is the empirically-tested conclusion that after the incorporation of the CSR/CSE leverages inefficiency in trading: 1) in choppy markets, institutional money accumulates profit entirely with overnight-positions in ethical non-leveraged ETFs; 2) in a trending markets, the profit occurs in day-trading on non-ethical leveraged instruments. Finally, according to a comparative return analysis, the best results are received by CSR/CSE ETFs in sideways and choppy markets after employing an overnight-position return trading strategy.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; corporate social entrepreneurship; CSE; ETF; leverage; market anomaly; trading; market volatility; trading functionalities; trending markets; sideways markets.
International Journal of Financial Engineering and Risk Management, 2019 Vol.3 No.1, pp.95 - 109
Received: 02 Dec 2017
Accepted: 21 Jan 2018
Published online: 31 Oct 2018 *