Title: Evaluation of aggregate models of plug-in electric vehicles for primary frequency control

Authors: Seyedmahdi Izadkhast; Pablo Garcia-Gonzalez; Pablo Frías; Pavol Bauer; Laura Ramírez-Elizondo

Addresses: Faculty Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft, Netherlands ' School of Engineering (ICAI), Institute for Research in Technology (IIT), Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Calle Alberto Aguilera, 25, 28015 Madrid, Spain ' Institute for Research in Technology (IIT), Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Calle Santa Cruz de Marcenado, 26, 28015 Madrid, Spain ' Faculty Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft, Netherlands ' Faculty Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft, Netherlands

Abstract: This paper summarises and evaluates in detail aggregate models of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) for primary frequency control (PFC) through dynamic simulations. A basic aggregate model of PEVs for PFC is introduced and then gradually developed in the following steps: 1) technical characteristics of PEVs are incorporated into the model; 2) technical characteristics of distribution networks are formulated and added; 3) a strategy is described to well-design the frequency-droop controller of PEVs for PFC. Moreover, from an economic point of view, a method is presented to assess the benefits which could result from PEVs for PFC. Four simulation scenarios are defined to evaluate the impact of: 1) different PEV's penetration levels; 2) PEV's operating modes and constraints; 3) power consumed in the network during the PFC; 4) well-designed frequency droop controller, on the frequency response following a contingency event. Simulation results show that aggregate PEVs have a great potential not only to improve the frequency response, while preserving the overall stability, but also to save some costs associated with PFC.

Keywords: aggregation; distribution networks; economic assessment; plug-in electric vehicles; PEVs; primary frequency control; PFC; strategy; technical constraints; well-design droop.

DOI: 10.1504/IJATM.2018.093418

International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, 2018 Vol.18 No.3, pp.270 - 294

Available online: 14 Jun 2018 *

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