Title: GRACO: a geographic greedy routing with an ACO based void handling technique

Authors: Mouna Rekik; Nathalie Mitton; Zied Chtourou

Addresses: Univ Lille Nord de France, IFSTTAR, COSYS, LEOST, F-59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq, France ' Inria Lille – Nord Europe, 40 Avenue Halley, 59650 Villeneuve-d'Ascq, France ' Digital Research Center of Sfax, Technopark of Sfax, B.P. 275, Sakiet Ezzit, 3021 Sfax, Tunisia

Abstract: Geographic routing has gained much attention as a basic routing primitive in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) due to its memory-less, scalability, efficiency and low overhead features. However, it suffers from communication holes, where no next hop candidate is closer to the destination than the node currently holding the packet. This paper proposes greedy with ACO-based recovery routing protocol (GRACO), an efficient geographic routing protocol with a novel void recovery strategy based on ant colony optimisation (ACO). GRACO is able to adaptively adjust the forwarding mechanism to avoid the blocking situation and effectively deliver data packets. Compared to greedy-face-greedy (GFG), one of the best performing geographic routing protocols, simulation results demonstrate that GRACO can successfully find shorter routing paths with higher delivery rate, less control packet overhead and shorter end-to-end delay.

Keywords: WSNs; wireless sensor networks; geographic routing; guaranteed delivery; swarm intelligence; ACO; ant colony optimisation.

DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2017.10007419

International Journal of Sensor Networks, 2018 Vol.26 No.3, pp.145 - 161

Received: 19 Jan 2016
Accepted: 13 Feb 2017

Published online: 01 Mar 2018 *

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