Authors: Stacey Schal; L. Sebastian Bryson; Lindell E. Ormsbee
Addresses: Geosyntec Consultants, 3415 S Sepulveda Blvd Ste 500, Los Angeles, CA 90034, USA ' Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kentucky, 161 Raymond Bldg., Lexington, KY 40506-0281, USA ' Kentucky Water Resources Research Institute, University of Kentucky, 233 Mining and Minerals Building, Lexington, KY 40506-0107, USA
Abstract: Water distribution systems are vulnerable to intentional, along with accidental, contamination. A network of water quality sensors can provide early detection of contamination, but these sensors must be placed in locations that maximise their ability to detect contaminates. Robust models and algorithms have been developed to aid in sensor placement, but many require calibrated hydraulic/water quality models. Many small utilities do not possess the financial resources or expertise to build calibrated models. Because of such limitations, a simple procedure is proposed to recommend optimal placement of a sensor without a model or complicated algorithm. The procedure uses simple information about the geometry of the system and does not require explicit information about flow dynamics. While the proposed method does not claim to be as reliable as currently available sensor placement software, it should accomplish the goal to provide an effective solution for small utilities with limited technical and financial resources.
Keywords: water distribution systems; contamination warning systems; CWS; water quality monitoring; EPANET; water pipes; storage tanks; sensor placement; small utilities; water quality sensors; water pollution; pollution detection; optimal placement; resource constraints.
International Journal of Critical Infrastructures, 2016 Vol.12 No.3, pp.195 - 212
Available online: 09 Sep 2016 *Full-text access for editors Access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article