Title: Time synchronisation in wireless sensor networks under energy-efficient spanning tree protocol

Authors: Cheng Bi; An Zhang; Ying Wan

Addresses: Department of Mathematics, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China ' Department of Mathematics, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China ' Department of Mathematics, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are quickly becoming an essential part of today's modern infrastructure, and it is becoming crucial to consider time synchronisation problems in WSNs. Furthermore, one of the main design issues in WSN time synchronisation is the efficient use of energy at each sensor node to prolong the lifespan of the network. This paper describes a new energy-efficient time protocol based on the spanning tree of the network model graph in a WSN. Three major cases are discussed: 1) time synchronisation using the energy-efficient spanning tree (EST) protocol in a WSN with approximately 300 sensors; 2) an improved EST protocol in large-scale WSNs; 3) an improved EST protocol under weighted graph. Additionally, a series of practical algorithms are proposed in this paper, where both energy and time efficient can be clearly shown through a number of simulated examples along with their comparative results.

Keywords: minimum spanning tree; MST; wireless sensor networks; WSNs; MTS protocol; energy efficiency; weighted graph; time synchronisation; network lifetime; simulation.

DOI: 10.1504/IJAL.2016.078497

International Journal of Automation and Logistics, 2016 Vol.2 No.3, pp.218 - 233

Received: 09 May 2015
Accepted: 21 Sep 2015

Published online: 18 Aug 2016 *

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