Title: Historical aspects of botulinum toxin used clinically: part II: overcoming resistance

Authors: Andy Pickett

Addresses: Toxin Science Limited, Wrexham, UK; Botulinum Research Center, UMASS Dartmouth, Dartmouth MA, USA

Abstract: After the extraordinary success of botulinum toxin serotype A in the 1980s to treat a wide range of spasmodic muscular conditions and movement disorders, a significant number of patients were found to stop responding to their treatments with time. When investigated, they were found to have become immune ('resistant') to the products. This second article in a series looks at the next botulinum toxin serotype used clinically after serotype A to overcome this resistance and how that choice was made.

Keywords: botulinum neurotoxins; BoNT; historical notes; second serotype; botulism; clinical use; drug resistance; drug immune; Clostridium botulinum; botulinum toxin serotype.

DOI: 10.1504/TBJ.2015.078134

The Botulinum Journal, 2015 Vol.3 No.1, pp.34 - 40

Received: 08 May 2021
Accepted: 12 May 2021

Published online: 29 Jun 2016 *

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