Title: Hedging effectiveness of European wheat futures markets: an application of multivariate GARCH models
Authors: Marco Zuppiroli; Cesar Revoredo-Giha
Addresses: Dipartimento di Economia, Università degli Studi di Parma, Via Kennedy, 6 – 43125 Parma, Italy ' Food Marketing Research Team, Land Economy, Environment and Society Research Group, Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), King's Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK
Abstract: The instability of commodity prices and the hypothesis that speculative behaviour was one of its causes has brought renewed interest in futures markets. In this paper, the hedging effectiveness of European and US wheat futures markets were studied to test whether they were affected by the high price instability after 2007. In particular, the focus of the paper is to test of whether the increasing presence of financialisation of commodity trading in futures markets mentioned in the literature has made them divorced from the physical markets. A multivariate GARCH model was applied to compute optimal hedging ratios. Important evidence was found of a slight improvement, after 2007, in the effectiveness of hedging with the European futures.
Keywords: risk management; hedging ratio; multivariate GARCH model; hedging effectiveness; wheat futures markets; futures prices; commodity prices; Europe; USA; United States; commodity trading; price instability.
International Journal of Applied Management Science, 2016 Vol.8 No.2, pp.132 - 148
Received: 21 Apr 2015
Accepted: 24 Aug 2015
Published online: 17 Jun 2016 *