Title: Modelling workload in cognitive and concurrent tasks with time stress using an integrated cognitive architecture
Authors: Shi Cao; Yili Liu
Addresses: Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2117, USA ' Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2117, USA
Abstract: Workload modelling is one of the important issues in human factors modelling and simulation. Focusing on the cognitive rather than the physical aspect of workload, the goal of the present study is to examine a new simulation method for workload modelling in performing complex cognitive activities and concurrent tasks under time stress. In a general-purpose mental architecture called QN-ACTR, overall expected utilisation (OEU) is used as an index of workload. This computational technique possesses construct validity and does not require human subjective rating. We examined and demonstrated QN-ACTR modelling in the simulations of a cognitive judgment single-task and a target-shooting and arithmetic computation dual-task, both with time stress. OEU results from simulation were related to subjective workload measures from human empirical results. The models produced performance results similar to the human data and OEU workload index results capturing the difference between various task demand conditions. This new modelling technique could support the test and evaluation of complex human-machine systems in a wide range of domains.
Keywords: workload modelling; human performance modelling; complex cognition; concurrent tasks; time stress; cognitive architectures; system engineering; QN-ACTR; human factors; simulation; cognitive judgment; overall expected utilisation; OEU; human-machine interaction; HMI.
International Journal of Human Factors Modelling and Simulation, 2015 Vol.5 No.2, pp.113 - 135
Received: 02 Apr 2014
Accepted: 20 Mar 2015
Published online: 16 Mar 2016 *