Title: Fault-tolerant multi-path routing protocol for WSN based on HEED

Authors: Yucai Zhou; Xinhua Wang; Tong Wang; Bingyi Liu; Weixin Sun

Addresses: School of Energy and Power, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410076, China ' Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430063, China ' College of Information and Communication Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China ' College of Information and Communication Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China ' College of Information and Communication Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China

Abstract: To solve the network performance deterioration caused by network nodes failure according to unexpected and unforeseen environmental changes in wireless sensor network (WSN), a high fault-tolerant and energy-efficient multipath routing protocol based on the idea of hybrid, energy-efficient distributed (HEED) clustering protocol, called HEED fault tolerant (HEED-FT) is proposed in this paper. To improve the routing reliability and energy balance between cluster heads, the HEED-FT algorithm first introduces the non-probability waiting time, residue energy and centres to improve the cluster lifetime. Then multiple clustering parameters are applied with different hierarchy which can control the ideal topology distribution of the cluster heads. Finally, a multiple trees Gabriel graph (MTGG) model is put forward to get a reliable communication link with multiple clustering parameters which can ensure the nodes in an ideal cluster topology distribution. The simulation results show that HEED-FT has less energy consumption, higher reliability and longer network survival than the traditional algorithms.

Keywords: fault tolerance; multi-path routing protocols; HEED clustering protocol; hybrid energy-efficient distributed; WSN; wireless sensor networks; node failure; energy efficiency; routing reliability; energy balance; waiting time; residue energy; cluster lifetime; cluster heads; multiple tree Gabriel graph; MTGG; simulation; energy consumption; network lifetime.

DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2016.074280

International Journal of Sensor Networks, 2016 Vol.20 No.1, pp.37 - 45

Received: 22 Jun 2015
Accepted: 23 Jun 2015

Published online: 20 Jan 2016 *

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