Title: Female participation in higher education management in Pakistan: an analytical study of possible barriers

Authors: Munazza Ambreen

Addresses: Secondary Teacher Education Department, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad Pakistan

Abstract: The present study aimed to explore the factors responsible for gender discrimination in higher education management in Pakistan. Population for the study consisted of 234 administrators of 11 public and three private sector universities located in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Data revealed that policies of recruitment and promotion; women role at home and cultural constraints; lack of support from spouse and family etc were considered as the core reasons of females' limited access to higher education management. Male administrators were found to be more biased. These biases and stereotypes might be the major cause of gender gap in higher education management as they dominated in numbers and authority. Females' broadened access to education, training and research opportunities and discouraging the stereotypes and legislative and governmental support can facilitate more women to come up to take positions in higher education management and thus flourish their abilities as well as serve the nation.

Keywords: gender bias; higher education management; academic managers; administrators; stereotypes; female participation; barriers; women; Pakistan; recruitment; promotion; home roles; cultural constraints; family support.

DOI: 10.1504/IJGSDS.2015.074110

International Journal of Gender Studies in Developing Societies, 2015 Vol.1 No.2, pp.119 - 134

Available online: 11 Jan 2016 *

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