Title: Green methodology for synthesis of alkylated cardanol based on the green chemical principles

Authors: Alessandra R. Freitas; Layane R. Almeida; Francisco A.M. Sales; Maria A.S. Rios

Addresses: Mestrado em Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente, Grupo de Inovações Tecnológicas e Especialidades Químicas, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Ministro Petrônio Portella, Teresina/PI, CEP 64.049-550, Brazil ' Departamento de Química, Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Materiais Avançados, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Ministro Petrônio Portella, Teresina/PI, CEP 64.049-550, Brazil ' Departamento de Química, Campus Iguatu, Cajazeiras – Ceará, Instituto Federal do Ceará, Iguatu/CE, CEP 63.503-790, Brazil ' Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Grupo de Inovações Tecnológicas e Especialidades Químicas, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza/CE, CEP 60.455-760, Brazil

Abstract: This paper presents a green methodology for synthesis of alkylated cardanol based on the green chemical principles, which incorporates environmental factors into the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reactions. Cardanol was used as a renewable source of phenol. The synthesised alkylphenols were characterised by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and their antioxidant potentialities were evaluated by using accelerated oxidation test. After the oxidation period (96 h and 120 h), the samples were analysed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and the results showed that naphthenic hydrogenated 10, in the presence of the alkylphenols, exhibited reduction on the oxidative degradation. The proposed methodology considered the adoption of the first, fifth, sixth and seventh green chemical principles.

Keywords: CNSL; green chemical principles; ionol; accelerated oxidation test; alkylphenols; naphthenic hydrogenated 10; Friedel-Crafts alkylation; green chemistry; synthesis; tert-butyl chloride; alkylated cardanol; phenol; renewable sources.

DOI: 10.1504/PIE.2015.073432

Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, 2015 Vol.9 No.3, pp.312 - 325

Received: 21 Feb 2015
Accepted: 02 Sep 2015

Published online: 02 Dec 2015 *

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