Authors: N. Javaid; A. Bibi; S.N. Mohammad; Z.A. Khan; N. Alrajeh
Addresses: CAST, COMSATS Institute of IT, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan; EE Dept, COMSATS Institute of IT, 44000, Islamabad, Pakistan ' ICIT, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan 29050, Pakistan ' EE Dept., COMSATS Institute of IT, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan ' Internetworking Program, FE, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada ' B.M.T, C.A.M.S, King Saud University, Riyadh 11633, Saudi Arabia
Abstract: In this paper, we select three most widely used reactive protocols; ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV), dynamic source routing (DSR) and dynamic MANET on-demand (DYMO), and model their energy and time consumption costs of expanding ring search (ERS) algorithm in wireless multi-hop networks (WMhNs). A novel contribution of this work is tuning the route discovery and route maintenance parameters of the chosen protocols to minimise routing overhead. For analytical comparison, we simulate default and enhanced versions of these protocols using NS-2. From modelling and analytical comparison, we deduce that adjusting time-to-live (TTL) values in search sets of ERS algorithm with respective waiting time is more useful for reducing bandwidth and locating time in chosen protocols. Moreover, for reliable transmission and efficient performance, reactive protocols need immediate detection of link breakage along with quick repairement strategies for re-establishment of routes such as local link repair (LLR) and packet salvaging (PS).
Keywords: optimisation; routing overhead; wireless multi-hop networks; wireless networks; AODV; ad-hoc on-demand distance vector; DSR; dynamic source routing; DYMO; dynamic MANET on-demand; mobile ah hoc networks; MANETs; energy consumption; time consumption; expanding ring search; ERS; route discovery; route maintenance; modelling; waiting time; bandwidth reduction; link breakage; repair strategies; local link repair; LLR; packet salvaging.
International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing, 2015 Vol.19 No.1/2, pp.4 - 18
Received: 13 Dec 2013
Accepted: 12 Mar 2014
Published online: 19 May 2015 *