Title: Competing and co-existing business models for EV: lessons from international case studies

Authors: Claire Weiller; Tianjiao Shang; Andy Neely; Yongjiang Shi

Addresses: Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge, 17 Charles Babbage Road, CB3 0FS Cambridge, UK ' Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge, 17 Charles Babbage Road, CB3 0FS Cambridge, UK ' Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge, 17 Charles Babbage Road, CB3 0FS Cambridge, UK ' Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge, 17 Charles Babbage Road, CB3 0FS Cambridge, UK

Abstract: This paper presents four innovative business models that are being developed in three countries to support the commercialisation of electric vehicles (EVs). Using an original business model framework and interviews with EV company founders and directors, we analyse the coexistence of competing business models (China) and partnership strategies along the EV value chain (USA and France). Findings emphasise the importance of designing flexible business models and leveraging resources and inter-industry partnerships in the emerging EV ecosystem. The results provide practical recommendations for industrial players and insights for policy-makers.

Keywords: electric vehicles; business models; co-opetition; business ecosystems; competition; case studies; technology management; electric vehicle commercialisation; China; partnership strategies; EV value chain; USA; United States; France; flexible models; modelling; resource leverage; inter-industry partnerships; automotive management; automobile industry.

DOI: 10.1504/IJATM.2015.068543

International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, 2015 Vol.15 No.2, pp.126 - 148

Received: 29 Jan 2014
Accepted: 04 May 2014

Published online: 29 Mar 2015 *

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