Authors: Thomas Schøtt; Maryam Cheraghi
Addresses: Department of Entrepreneurship and Relationship Management, Universitetsparken 1, 6000 Kolding, Denmark ' Department of Entrepreneurship and Relationship Management, Universitetsparken 1, 6000 Kolding, Denmark
Abstract: Innovation is embedded in networks that are embedded in culture. An entrepreneur's network of advisors comprises a network within the private sphere of family and friends and a network outside, in the public sphere. This networking is gendered, we hypothesise, in that typically, the private sphere network is heavily utilised by women, whereas the public sphere network is stronger for men. We also hypothesise, that these gendered networks are embedded in culture, in that women's networks are reduced within traditional culture, and that culture moderates the effects of networks on innovation. 68,984 entrepreneurs in 67 countries were surveyed by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, and analysed by hierarchical linear modelling. Entrepreneurs' gender is found to influence their networks, in that women network more in the private sphere, whereas men network more in the public sphere, but networks are smaller in traditional culture than in secular-rational culture. Typically, the private sphere network impedes innovation, whereas the public sphere network benefits innovation, especially in traditional culture.
Keywords: gender differences; embedded innovation; entrepreneurs; advisors; networks; networking; private sphere; public sphere; culture; small businesses; small firms; Global Entrepreneurship Monitor; GEM; HLM; hierarchical linear modelling; mixed modelling; traditional cultures; secular rational cultures.
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 2015 Vol.24 No.1, pp.83 - 116
Received: 08 May 2021
Accepted: 12 May 2021
Published online: 03 Dec 2014 *