Title: Children's exposure to traffic-related pollution: assessment of CO exposure in a typical school day

Authors: Joana Valente; Jorge Humberto Amorim; Ricardo Teixeira; Cláudia Pimentel; I. Ribeiro; Carlos Borrego

Addresses: CESAM and Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal ' CESAM and Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal ' CESAM and Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal ' CESAM and Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal ' CESAM and Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal ' CESAM and Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal

Abstract: This paper evaluates the exposure of four children to carbon monoxide (CO) in two different classrooms during the time spent in school in a typical school day, using a numerical modelling approach. The study is focused on an area of 550 × 550 m² centred at a primary school of the city of Aveiro, in central Portugal, which is located close to a road with moderate traffic and has naturally ventilated rooms. Air quality data were measured in the school yard. Traffic emissions were estimated with TREM model, using traffic counts data. Simulations of CO concentrations in the study domain were performed with the computational fluid dynamics model VADIS, considering the influence of buildings and trees over the dispersion. Indoor concentrations were simulated using a mass transfer approach. Results show that the individual exposure of children is spatially dependent, as a consequence of the wind flow and air pollutant dispersion patterns.

Keywords: CO monoxide; carbon exposure; urban pathways; microenvironment approach; CFD modelling; children; child exposure; traffic pollution; traffic emissions; vehicle emissions; school days; air pollution; air quality; computational fluid dynamics; primary schools; Portugal; buildings; trees; indoor concentrations; simulation; mass transfer; individual exposure; wind flow; atmospheric dispersion modelling.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEP.2014.065910

International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 2014 Vol.55 No.1/2/3/4, pp.104 - 112

Available online: 29 Nov 2014 *

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