Title: Growth-expectations among women entrepreneurs: embedded in networks and culture in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and in Belgium and France

Authors: Maryam Cheraghi; Zakia Setti; Thomas Schøtt

Addresses: Department of Entrepreneurship and Relationship Management, University of Southern Denmark, Engstien 1, 6000 Kolding, Denmark ' Department of Sociology, University of Algiers 2, Said Griffon No 23, El-harrach, 16051, Algeria ' Department of Entrepreneurship and Relationship Management, University of Southern Denmark, Engstien 1, 6000 Kolding, Denmark

Abstract: An entrepreneur usually has an expectation for the firm, expecting expansion, stability or contraction. Expectation is influenced by the entrepreneur's attributes, but expectation is also embedded in the micro-environment of networking and the macro-environment of culture. Traditional culture and secular-rational culture differ in roles for women, which influence women entrepreneurs' networking and expectations. The design compares cultures, with data from three traditional societies, Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia and two secular-rational societies, France and Belgium, surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, randomly sampling 39,336 women, including 2,306 entrepreneurs. Analyses show that women entrepreneurs have growth-expectations based on their background and increased by their competence and opportunity-motive, which also promote business networks around their firms. Formation of expectations is embedded in the networks in the way that networking increases expectations. Formation of expectations is embedded in culture in the way that, surprisingly, expectations are higher in traditional culture than in secular-rational culture.

Keywords: women entrepreneurs; entrepreneurial networking; entrepreneurial expectations; growth expectations; Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia; Belgium; France; female entrepreneurs; entrepreneurial attributes; firm expectations; entrepreneurship; culture; cultural differences; traditional culture; secular-rational culture; female roles; women roles; traditional societies; secular-rational societies; Global Entrepreneurship Monitor; GEM; background; competence; opportunity-motive; business networks.

DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2014.065308

International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 2014 Vol.23 No.1/2, pp.191 - 212

Available online: 21 Oct 2014 *

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