Title: Innovation embedded in entrepreneurs' networks in private and public spheres: a global study focusing on China and Denmark

Authors: Thomas Schøtt; Maryam Cheraghi; Shahamak Rezaei; Jan Vang

Addresses: Department of Entrepreneurship and Relationship Management, University of Southern Denmark, Engstien 1, 6000 Kolding, Denmark ' Department of Entrepreneurship and Relationship Management, University of Southern Denmark, Engstien 1, 6000 Kolding, Denmark ' Department of Society and Globalisation, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark ' Department for Business and Management, Centre for Industrial Production, Aalborg University, Frederikskaj 10b, 2450 SV, Denmark

Abstract: Global studies have found tendencies: traditional culture promotes entrepreneurs' networking in the private sphere, impeding innovation, whereas secular-rational culture facilitates networking in the public sphere, benefiting innovation. This embeddedness is here scrutinised in contrasting societies, China and Denmark. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed entrepreneurs in China, Denmark and elsewhere. Analyses reconfirm the global tendencies and show that, China in contrast to Denmark, public sphere networking is sparser, but private sphere networking is denser. Innovation is negatively affected by private sphere networking and positively affected by public sphere networking, but innovation is less promoted by public sphere networking in China than in Denmark.

Keywords: firm innovation; networks; private sphere; public sphere; national innovation; China; Denmark; Global Entrepreneurship Monitor; GEM; entrepreneurs; entrepreneurial networking; private sector; public sector; traditional culture; secular-rational culture; traditional societies; secular-rational societies.

DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2014.065302

International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 2014 Vol.23 No.1/2, pp.145 - 167

Available online: 21 Oct 2014 *

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