Title: Understanding the mobility-transformative qualities of urban park and ride polices in the UK and the Netherlands

Authors: Marc Dijk; Graham Parkhurst

Addresses: International Centre for Integrated Assessment and Sustainable Development (ICIS), Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands ' Centre for Transport and Society (CTS), Faculty of Environment and Technology, Frenchay Campus, University of the West of England, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK

Abstract: Park and Ride (P+R) has emerged as a key element of the sustainable mobility packages of many urban areas in Europe. The present article explores the impact of the introduction of P+R on urban car mobility, especially its potential transformative impact, in two of the densest European states: the UK and the Netherlands. An analysis of six case-studies (i.e., cities) showed a degree of disconnect between stated policy aims and implementation in practice, and in some of the cases this difference was substantial. No obvious national contextual factor explaining implementation success was identified: in both contexts the (local) political will and practical tools to ensure transfer of parking capacity to P+R, were the key factors. The overall car restraining effect of P&R hoped for was mostly not achieved - mainly due to transfer from public transport-only trips and from cycling and because overall parking supply across city centres increased.

Keywords: park and ride; P+R; transition; sustainable mobility; urban mobility; parking capacity; urban transport policy; transport interchange; traffic congestion; UK; United Kingdom; The Netherlands; city transport; cities; public transport; car reduction; sustainability.

DOI: 10.1504/IJATM.2014.065292

International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, 2014 Vol.14 No.3/4, pp.246 - 270

Available online: 21 Oct 2014

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