Title: Failure biomechanical responses of isolated and intact human thoracic spine structures

Authors: Mike W.J. Arun; Narayan Yoganandan; Frank A. Pintar; Christopher E. Wolfla; Valeta Carol Chancey; B. Joseph McEntire

Addresses: Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA ' Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA ' Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA ' Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA ' U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Fort Rucker, AL, USA ' U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Fort Rucker, AL, USA

Abstract: This review paper presents an initial synthesis of thoracic spine data from postmortem human surrogate (PMHS) experiments. Data from component, functional and multi-segmental spine units, and intact thoracic column and PMHS models are synthesised using the peak failure force, deflection, stiffness and energy parameters. These responses are evaluated based on two age groups and at low and high strain rates for the upper, middle and lower thoracic spine regions. The analysis shows the complexity of the thoracic spine response to external loading and emphasises the need to obtain data from additional tests by increasing sample sizes and use of other uniaxial and combined loading modes to delineate injuries, injury mechanisms and develop injury risk functions for the development and validation of biofidelic manikins for occupant safety in motor vehicle, sports and military environments including underbody body blast loadings.

Keywords: impact biomechanics; human thoracic spine; underbody blast; vertical loading; military injuries; tolerance; thoracic injuries; peak failure force; deflection; stiffness; energy; strain; injury mechanisms; injury risk functions; biofidelic manikins; occupant safety; motor vehicles, sports vehicles; sporting environments; military environments; vehicle safety.

DOI: 10.1504/IJVS.2014.063260

International Journal of Vehicle Safety, 2014 Vol.7 No.3/4, pp.265 - 281

Published online: 08 Jul 2014 *

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