Title: Self-synchronising image steganography algorithms based on error-correcting codes

Authors: S.K. Muttoo; Sushil Kumar

Addresses: Department of Computer Science, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India ' Department of Mathematics, Rajdhani College, University of Delhi, New Delhi-110015, India

Abstract: Error correction codes-based techniques have been used by many researchers for image steganography to find a trade-off either between high embedding efficiency and low embedding complexity or between high embedding efficiency and high embedding capacity. However, there are other characteristics of steganography such as undetectability, security, robustness against common attacks and complexity that require the same attention. In this paper, we shall discuss error correction codes-based image steganography techniques to find a trade-off between high embedding capacity, high embedding efficiency, security, undetectability and imperceptibility. This paper presents two noval steganographic algorithm: first is error-based syndrome technique based on Reed-Muller codes and other is based on Reed-Solomon code. Before embedding, the message is encoded using self-synchronising T-codes, in place of Huffman codes, that not only compress the message, but also helps in synchronising the message at decoding stage of extraction. The comparisons of the proposed algorithms are done with Hamming-based matrix embedding, an improved pre-flipping matrix embedding, and Hamming-based error map technique. The experimental results show that proposed algorithms have better imperceptibility, multi-layered security, provable security and constant embedding efficiency.

Keywords: image steganography; RM-codes; RS-codes; security; structural similarity index; SSIM; weighted peak signal-to-noise ratio; WPSNR; Kullback Leibler divergence; KLDiv; self-synchronisation; error-correcting codes; embedding capacity; embedding efficiency; undetectability; imperceptibility.

DOI: 10.1504/IJESDF.2013.058670

International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics, 2013 Vol.5 No.3/4, pp.297 - 316

Received: 12 Jun 2013
Accepted: 08 Nov 2013

Published online: 13 Jan 2014 *

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