Title: The role of incentives for sustainable implementation of marine protected areas: an example from Tanzania

Authors: Elizabeth J.Z. Robinson; Heidi J. Albers; Stephen L. Kirama

Addresses: School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, UK; Environment for Development Tanzania and Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Sweden ' Applied Economics/FES, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA ' Environment for Development Tanzania, Department of Economics University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Abstract: Although Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are an increasingly popular policy tool for protecting marine stocks and biodiversity, they pose high costs for small-scale fisherfolk in poor countries. With Tanzania's Mnazi Bay Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park as an example, we develop a spatial economic decision-modelling framework as a lens to examine fishers' reactions to incentives created by an MPA. We argue that MPAs in poor countries can only contribute to sustainability if management induces changes in incentives to fish through a combination of enforcement ('sticks') and livelihood projects ('carrots'). We emphasise practical implementation issues and implications for fostering marine ecosystem sustainability.

Keywords: marine protected areas; sustainable marine reserves; Tanzania; practical enforcement; marine-dependent livelihoods; sustainable society; incentives; marine stocks protection; biodiversity; spatial economic decision making; modelling; marine ecosystems; sustainability; sustainable development; fishing; enforcement.

DOI: 10.1504/IJSSOC.2014.057888

International Journal of Sustainable Society, 2014 Vol.6 No.1/2, pp.28 - 46

Published online: 25 Oct 2014 *

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