Title: Comparative toxicity of cypermethrin and a commercial formulation on Rhinella arenarum larval development (Anura: Bufonidae)

Authors: Gabriela Veronica Svartz; Cristina Silvia Pérez-Coll

Addresses: Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental (3iA), Universidad Nacional de San Martín (UNSAM), Av. 25 de Mayo y Francia, San Martín, Buenos Aires 1650, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET), Buenos Aires 1650, Argentina ' Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental (3iA), Universidad Nacional de San Martín (UNSAM), Av. 25 de Mayo y Francia, San Martín, Buenos Aires 1650, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET), Buenos Aires 1650, Argentina

Abstract: In this study we report the effects of cypermethrin (CY), a growing use insecticide, comparing the toxicity of the active ingredient (AI) and a commercial formulation (CF) on a non-target organism, Rhinella arenarum. The results showed a highly significant increase (p < 0.05) toxicity of both substances over time, obtaining a 96 h LC-50 of 28.07 mg CY/L and 11.20 mg CY/L, and a 336 h LC-50 of 0.0048 mg CY/L and 0.00065 mg CY/L, for AI and CF, respectively. Furthermore, the toxicity of CF was greater than AI at all exposure periods, reaching up to seven times. The larvae presented alterations in behaviour as hyperkinesia and spasmodic contractions up to total absence of movements. Considering these results and the risk assessment conducted, we conclude that CY represents a potential direct risk considering lethality, or indirect by sublethal effects for the survival of this amphibian in agroecosystems.

Keywords: Rhinella arenarum; larval development; amphibians; tadpoles; cypermethrin; commercial formulation; agrochemicals; lethal effects; sublethal effects; morphological alterations; toxicity bioassays; insecticides; risk assessment; agroecosystems.

DOI: 10.1504/IJENVH.2013.056973

International Journal of Environment and Health, 2013 Vol.6 No.4, pp.320 - 329

Available online: 03 Oct 2013 *

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