Title: GEM New Zealand's different approach

Authors: Howard H. Frederick

Addresses: School of Management and Entrepreneurship, Unitec New Zealand, Private Bag 92025, Auckland, New Zealand

Abstract: At 13.9% of the adult population, New Zealand|s ||Total Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Activity|| is highest amongst developed countries. This benchmark uses the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) methodology. New Zealand has a high level of opportunity entrepreneurship and a moderate level of necessity entrepreneurship. New Zealand|s entrepreneurial firms contribute about half of all new jobs created annually. Informal investment is a more important source of financing to entrepreneurs than venture capital. The proportion of female entrepreneurs has slipped over the past three years. Maori are more entrepreneurial than the rest of population. The study argues that New Zealand has an excellent innovation policy but no entrepreneurship policy.

Keywords: New Zealand; entrepreneurship; Global Entrepreneurship Monitor; investment; innovation; policy.

DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2004.005650

International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 2004 Vol.1 No.3/4, pp.212 - 222

Available online: 10 Nov 2004 *

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