Title: Energy efficiency in Norwegian households - identifying motivators and barriers with a focus group approach

Authors: Christian A. Klöckner; Bertha M. Sopha; Ellen Matthies; Even Bjørnstad

Addresses: Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Edward Bulls veg 1, 7491 Trondheim, Norway ' Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, GadjahMada University, Jl. Grafika No. 2, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia ' Institute for Psychology I, Otto-von-Guericke University, Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany ' Enova SF, Professor Brochs gate 2, 7437 Trondheim, Norway

Abstract: This paper describes the theoretical background and results of a focus group study on determinants of energy related behaviour in Norwegian households. 70 Norwegians between 18 and 79 years of age participated in eight focus-groups in four Norwegian cities. The aim of the study was to identify behaviours that Norwegians consider relevant with respect to energy use, the main determinants of those behaviours, as well as barriers against and facilitators of energy efficiency. The most important behaviours from the participants' perspectives were heating, water heating, use of white ware and mobility. The main motivators named were minimising behavioural costs, value orientations, perceived consumer efficacy and social norms. The most important barriers were structural misfits, economic, effort, time consumption, low consumer efficacy and lack of relevant and trustworthy information. The most potent facilitators were economic incentives, gains in comfort, reduced effort, tailored practical information, individual feedback and legislative actions.

Keywords: energy behaviour; household energy use; Norway; theory of planned behavior; TPB; barriers; facilitators; costs; consumer efficacy; economic incentives; psychology; energy efficiency; motivators; focus groups; motivation; lack of information.

DOI: 10.1504/IJESD.2013.056348

International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development, 2013 Vol.12 No.4, pp.396 - 415

Published online: 28 Jan 2014 *

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