Title: Measurement of ammonia emissions using various techniques in a comparative tunnel study

Authors: L. Emmenegger, J. Mohn, M. Sigrist, D. Marinov, U. Steinemann, F. Zumsteg, M. Meier

Addresses: Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Air Pollution/Environmental Technology Laboratory, CH-8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland. ' Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Air Pollution/Environmental Technology Laboratory, CH-8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland. ' Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing Laboratory, Institute of Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich, Hoenggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland. ' Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing Laboratory, Institute of Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich, Hoenggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland. ' US + FZ Beratende Ingenieure, CH-8832 Wollerau/CH-5600 Lenzburg, Switzerland. ' US + FZ Beratende Ingenieure, CH-8832 Wollerau/CH-5600 Lenzburg, Switzerland. ' OSTLUFT, AWEL, Abteilung Lufthygiene, CH-8090 Zurich, Switzerland

Abstract: A field-based intercomparison study for ammonia measurements was conducted using seven analytical methods. It included sulphuric acid impinger, citric acid denuder, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), and continuous aqueous extraction followed by measurement of conductivity (Airrmonia). Measurements were done at the entrance and the exit of the Gubrist highway tunnel near Zurich, Switzerland. For DOAS, FTIR, PAS and Airrmonia, 24 hour means were calculated based on a time resolution of 10 minutes. At the tunnel exit, all 24 hour averages were within 13%, and the continuous data of the time-resolved methods agreed well. At the tunnel entrance, a slightly reduced method comparison included four methods, and daily mean values agreed within 23%. Ammonia emission factors, based on 4 weeks of continuous measurements with the Airrmonia, were 31 ± 4 mg km-1 for light-duty vehicles and 14 ± 7 mg km-1 for heavy-duty vehicles.

Keywords: ammonia measurements; automotive emission; emission factor; heavy-duty vehicle; light-duty vehicle; tunnel study; vehicle emissions; pollution emissions; highway tunnels.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEP.2004.005547

International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 2004 Vol.22 No.3, pp.326 - 341

Available online: 19 Oct 2004 *

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