Title: Real-world and type-approval emission evolution of passenger cars

Authors: Patrik Soltic, Martin Weilenmann, Philippe Novak

Addresses: Laboratory for Internal Combustion Engines, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland. ' Laboratory for Internal Combustion Engines, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland. ' Laboratory for Internal Combustion Engines, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland

Abstract: The investigation of several passenger car generations with gasoline engines shows that the emissions depend very strongly on the driving cycle. Official type approval cycles allow just very inaccurate predications about their real-world emissions. The measured gasoline vehicles have up to factor 11 higher real-life emissions than in type approval cycles. However, a clear reduction of real-world emissions can be seen over the different investigated generations of gasoline cars. In addition, it can be seen that the cold start emissions depend strongly on ambient temperature levels for all generations of cars and that the cold start accounts for an increasing part of the total pollutant emissions. As an extreme example, the cold start hydrocarbon emissions of Euro-3 cars at –20°C ambient temperature correspond approximately to those of 1,000 km driving with warm engines.

Keywords: real-word emissions; type approval; emission factors; emission inventory; cold start; vehicle emissions; pollution emissions; passenger cars.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEP.2004.005543

International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 2004 Vol.22 No.3, pp.259 - 274

Available online: 19 Oct 2004 *

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