Title: Risk factors in emergency response: a review of investigations of emergency response in Norway

Authors: Gyrd Brændeland; Atle Refsdal

Addresses: SINTEF, Box 124 Blindern, 0314 Oslo, Norway ' SINTEF, Box 124 Blindern, 0314 Oslo, Norway

Abstract: We present a systematic review of investigations of some large incidents in Norway from 1999 to 2008. The purpose of the review is to identify factors that affect the risk level during emergency response. We found that the most important factor that increases the risk level for rescue personnel and civilians is lacking acknowledgement of risks due to lack of knowledge, causing inadequate counter measures. The most critical mistakes are made during the early stages of the response operation, before the external expertise arrives on the scene.

Keywords: emergency response; risk factors; decision making; incident investigations; literature review; counterfactual reasoning; Norway; lack of knowledge; risk levels; emergency management.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEM.2013.055160

International Journal of Emergency Management, 2013 Vol.9 No.2, pp.127 - 150

Accepted: 26 Apr 2013
Published online: 02 Feb 2014 *

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