Title: Testing alternative measures of subjective norms in entrepreneurial intention models

Authors: Annamária Heuer; Francisco Liñán

Addresses: Department of Entrepreneurship, HEC Management School, University of Liege, Chemin du Château 1, B-4000 Liège, Belgium ' Department of Applied Economics, University of Seville, Av. Ramon y Cajal, 1, 41018 – Sevilla, Spain

Abstract: Although the theory of planned behaviour can be applied to entrepreneurship, study outcomes concerning the role of the subjective norm construct vary substantially. Using data from ten dissimilar countries, two critical topics held responsible for conflicting outcomes in research on entrepreneurial intention are investigated: 1) measurement issues; 2) possible indirect influences between the motivational antecedents of intention. On the first topic, structural equations suggest that a simple multi-item subjective-norm measure is better than the frequently-applied product of normative beliefs and motivation to comply. On the second, structural equation modelling reveals that the internal consistency and explanatory capacity of the constructs is about the same with the original model than with a modified model taking into account the indirect influences of subjective norms on attitudes and on perceived behavioural control. These results should serve as a guide for future theoretical and empirical development, and put existing study outcomes into perspective.

Keywords: entrepreneurial intention; theory of planned behaviour; TPB; subjective norm; measurement; structural equation modelling; SEM; intention models; measures; entrepreneurship; modelling.

DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2013.054310

International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 2013 Vol.19 No.1, pp.35 - 50

Received: 08 May 2021
Accepted: 12 May 2021

Published online: 04 Jun 2013 *

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