Title: Forms of innovation openness in global automotive groups

Authors: Christer Karlsson; Martin Sköld

Addresses: Copenhagen Business School, Solbjerg Plads 3, 2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark ' Stockholm School of Economics, Centre for Innovation and Operations Management, Saltmätargatan 13-17, 113 83 Stockholm, Sweden

Abstract: Open innovation can involve more or less information and knowledge from few or many areas and few or many actors. The communication can also be more or less intense and frequent. These are considered here to be aspects of openness. Patterns of open innovation are often identified primarily in a vertical dimension in relation to various types of suppliers. Vertical 'open' innovation might however also have 'closed' signatures, especially in relations with suppliers owning scarce and specified technology and/or in relations with large suppliers prescribing technological content. Patterns of more or less closed innovation are mainly identified in a horizontal dimension. This type of innovation has closed signatures since the underlying technology being more or less general or specifically applicable is not traded on an open market, but developed for specific purposes between cooperating parties. In summary, attention should be paid to the openness in both vertical and horizontal perspectives.

Keywords: open innovation; closed innovation; innovation openness; automotive groups; automobile industry; innovation patterns.

DOI: 10.1504/IJATM.2013.052776

International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, 2013 Vol.13 No.1, pp.1 - 17

Received: 08 May 2021
Accepted: 12 May 2021

Published online: 22 Mar 2013 *

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