Title: Modelling emission, concentration and deposition of sodium for Poland

Authors: Małgorzata Werner; Maciej Kryza; Anthony J. Dore; Stephen Hallsworth; Marek Błaś

Addresses: Department of Climatology and Atmosphere Protection, Wrocław University, ul. Kosiby 6/8, 51-621 Wrocław, Poland ' Department of Climatology and Atmosphere Protection, Wrocław University, ul. Kosiby 6/8, 51-621 Wrocław, Poland ' Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB, UK ' Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB, UK ' Department of Climatology and Atmosphere Protection, Wrocław University, ul. Kosiby 6/8, 51-621 Wrocław, Poland

Abstract: The aim of this paper was to calculate natural and anthropogenic emission of Na+ and to estimate, with the FRAME model, annual air concentration and deposition of Na+ for the domain covering Poland. Calculations of natural emissions included marine emission and wind blown dust from land. Anthropogenic emission was calculated for both point and area sources. Emission maps were used in fine resolution atmospheric multi-pollutant exchange (FRAME) model, and annual average concentration and total deposition of Na+ at the 5 km × 5 km spatial resolution were calculated. A clear gradient from the north and north west towards the centre of Poland is observed for spatial distribution of air concentration and wet deposition of Na+, as sea salt aerosol contributes the majority of Na+ deposited in Poland. Comparison of FRAME wet deposition results with available measurements values indicates that the model is capable of reproducing annual deposition of sodium in Poland.

Keywords: air quality; air pollution; atmospheric dispersion modelling; Na+; sodium; fine resolution atmospheric multi-pollutant exchange; FRAME; pollutant emissions; deposition; Poland; anthropogenic emissions; sea salt aerosol.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEP.2012.051190

International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 2012 Vol.50 No.1/2/3/4, pp.164 - 174

Available online: 23 Dec 2012 *

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