Title: Has the Kyoto Protocol reached its main goal? A brief review

Authors: Marcelo Enrique Conti; Raffaele Ciasullo; Elías Jorge Matta

Addresses: Department of Management, 'Sapienza' University of Rome, Via del Castro Laurenziano 9, 00161, Rome, Italy. ' Department of Management, 'Sapienza' University of Rome, Via del Castro Laurenziano 9, 00161, Rome, Italy. ' Instituto de Tecnología Celulósica (ITC), Facultad de Ingeniería Química (FIQ), Universidad Nacional del Litoral (UNL), Santiago del Estero 2654, 3000 Santa Fe, República Argentina; Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnológico para la Industria Química (INTEC) UNL-CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Guemes 3450, 3000 Santa Fe, República Argentina

Abstract: This paper critically analyses the International policy on climate change, the role of the UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol and the GHG emissions, particularly CO2. Also the commitment of the different countries to reduce or limit these emissions, the development of carbon sinks and the flexible mechanisms that uses credit trading between countries members. The work also highlights the brightest aspects of the Protocol and reviews those critical issues that require modifications or whose application must be limited: the USA refusal to sign a joint commitment to reduce GHG, the status of major non-Annex I emitters (China, India, others) and the promotion of clean alternatives energy, with minimal environmental damage. About this last point, we particularly emphasised the issues of biomass and Kraft Black Liquor burning. In this context, it is inevitable to debate the overall environmental risks of Kraft Pulp Mills emissions and the forest exploitation involved.

Keywords: climate change; GHG emissions; greenhouse gases; UNFCCC; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; Kyoto Protocol; black liquor burning; Kraft pulp mills; carbon emissions; CO2; carbon dioxide; biomass; environmental pollution; environmental risks; forest exploitation.

DOI: 10.1504/IJENVH.2012.049331

International Journal of Environment and Health, 2012 Vol.6 No.2, pp.170 - 187

Published online: 30 Sep 2012 *

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