Title: Institutions and the sources of innovation: the determinants and effects of international R&D collaboration

Authors: Matthew A. Shapiro; Jeffrey B. Nugent

Addresses: Department of Social Sciences, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3301 S. Dearborn St., SH 116, Chicago, IL 60616, USA. ' Department of Economics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0253, USA

Abstract: This paper examines the phenomenon of international R&D collaboration in the form of cross-national patenting. Using a unique dataset on patents from the USPTO for a maximum of 125 countries over the period 1975-2005, we show that, despite the potential for technological advancement arising from R&D collaboration with tier 1 countries, there is no evidence that relatively poor and open countries raise their technical efficiency by doing so. In fact, the overall picture is one in which a poor, open, developing country is hurt by tier 1 collaboration. We have also identified non-linearities in the effects of overall patenting on technical efficiency, indicating that a certain threshold in numbers of patents per capita must be reached before technical efficiency increases. These results can be attributed to the keen international competition for researchers and research investment and the inability of firms in the home country to take advantage of such patenting and attract investments.

Keywords: international collaboration; productivity change; TFP; total-factor productivity; growth economics; intellectual property rights; democracy; innovation; R&D; research and development; cross-national patenting; patents; United States Patent and Trademark Office; USPTO; USA; technological advancement; poor countries; open countries; technical efficiency; non-linearities; international competition; researchers; research investment; socio-economic divisions; political divisions; developed countries; Global North; developing countries; Global South; knowledge economies; public policy.

DOI: 10.1504/IJPP.2012.048715

International Journal of Public Policy, 2012 Vol.8 No.4/5/6, pp.230 - 250

Published online: 31 Jul 2014 *

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