Title: Social innovation in a developing country: invention and diffusion of the Brazilian cooperative incubator

Authors: Mariza Almeida; Jose Manoel Carvalho De Mello; Henry Etzkowitz

Addresses: Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Avenida Pasteur, 458, Urca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, CEP 22290-240, ' Fluminense Federal University, R. Passo da Pátria, 156, bloco E, sala 443, Niterói, CEP 24210-240, RJ, Brazil ' H-STAR Institute, Stanford University, 210 Panama St., Cordura Hall, Stanford, California 94305-4115, USA; Birkbeck, University of London, Malet Street, Bloomsbury, London, WC1E 7HX, UK; Business School, University of Edinburgh, 29 Buccleuch Place, Edinburgh, EH8 9JS, UK.

Abstract: The incubator model of a support structure to develop high-tech firms from academic research was imported from the USA to Brazil, where it serves a variety of economic and social purposes. The Brazilian cooperative incubator is a creative reinterpretation of the business incubator model to advance social innovation. It addresses issues of social exclusion, poverty and unemployment by empowering favela residents to create their own jobs. Having diffused broadly, the Brazilian cooperative incubator allows us to address the issue of growth in social enterprises. This paper employs a triple helix dynamic model, including government (local, regional and national), academic (different types of universities, industry (firms of varying scale and sector, industry associations) and NGOs (non governmental organizations) to explain the diffusion and expansion of this innovation in social entrepreneurship.

Keywords: cooperative incubators; triple helix; innovation diffusion; social innovation; social enterprises; developing countries; incubator models; support structures; high-tech firms; academic research; United States; USA; Brazil; R&D; research and development; creative reinterpretations; business incubators; social exclusion; poverty; unemployment; empowerment; favela residents; favelas; slums; job creation; growth; dynamic models; local government; regional government; national government; regions; universities; higher education; industry; industrial associations; Favela Bairro; slum neighbourhoods; Rio de Janeiro; NGOs; non-governmental organisations; social entrepreneurship; technology; globalisation.

DOI: 10.1504/IJTG.2012.048326

International Journal of Technology and Globalisation, 2012 Vol.6 No.3, pp.206 - 224

Available online: 01 Aug 2012 *

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