Title: Secrets behind the Finnish miracle: the rise of Nokia

Authors: Anil Hira

Addresses: Political Science, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada

Abstract: By the laws of natural advantage, Finland should be a natural resource producer. In fact, Nokia, now known as a leading manufacturer in cell phones, started out as a wood pulp company. A combination of historical and geographic conditions helped to set the stage for the transformation of this once isolated economy. However, policy interventions were essential. These interventions evolved over time. Even more important was taking advantage of the windows of opportunity afforded by the deregulation of telecommunications markets in the largest economies. The openness to adjustment and learning through mistakes speaks to a strong national determination. The coordination of state-private sector efforts towards national goals is unmistakeable and deliberate in the case of Nokia.

Keywords: wireless technology; Nokia; Finland; industrial policy; technology policy; wireless communications; policy intervention; windows of opportunity; telecommunications deregulation; state-private partnerships; public-private partnerships; PPPs.

DOI: 10.1504/IJTG.2012.045295

International Journal of Technology and Globalisation, 2012 Vol.6 No.1/2, pp.38 - 64

Received: 08 May 2021
Accepted: 12 May 2021

Published online: 05 Feb 2012 *

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