Title: Labour standards and technological upgrading: competitive challenges in the global football industry

Authors: Khalid Nadvi

Addresses: Institute of Development Policy and Management (IDPM), School of Environment and Development (SED), University of Manchester, Arthur Lewis Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK

Abstract: Football manufacturing is a billion dollar industry heavily dominated by major global brands. Over the past 15 years there have been significant changes in the geographies of production with China consolidating its position as the number one football producer taking market share from Pakistan, the second largest producer. On the end market side, newly emerging markets have increased in importance but the EU and the USA have remained dominant. Over the past 15 years global football manufacturing has faced concerns on labour standards compliance and experienced distinct patterns of product and process upgrading. Using the analytical frameworks of global value chains and technological capabilities and learning, this study considers the challenges arising from technological upgrading and labour standards compliance within the global football industry and its implications for local producers.

Keywords: global production networks; technological learning; clusters; sports goods; China; Pakistan; global value chains; GVCs; football manufacturing; soccer; footballs; labour standards compliance; upgrading; technology capabilities; local producers.

DOI: 10.1504/IJTLID.2011.041906

International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, 2011 Vol.4 No.1/2/3, pp.235 - 257

Published online: 31 Jan 2015 *

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