Authors: Debabrata Mazumder, A.K. Dikshit
Addresses: Department of Civil Engineering, Bengal Engineering College (D.U.), Howrah 721 302 (W.B.), India. ' Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (W.B.), India
Abstract: Wastewater treatment by the hybrid reactor system has become wide-spread as it provides advantages of both the suspended and attached growth phase at the same time. It may be used to treat some rate-limiting substrate, priority pollutants, volatile organic compounds etc. as well as for nitrification. This versatile nature of hybrid reactor demands for a detailed investigation on the mechanism, mode of operation, different applications and major configurations available. The present article is devoted to explore these issues with respect to previous background and successive development in this area. Apart from the laboratory and pilot-scale study, some industrial applications have been overviewed to understand the performance of hybrid reactor in the concerned field. The approach of modelling for the hybrid reactor system is also demonstrated with the hypothetical data set. A comprehensive details about major hybrid processes is presented along with their schematic diagrams. The review on hybrid process revealed that it would be economic for upgradation of existing activated sludge system, ensuring carbonaceous oxidation and nitrification in a single reactor and treatment of slowly bio-degradable substances also.
Keywords: wastewater treatment; hybrid reactor; laboratory scale application; industrial application; reactor modelling; designated hybrid processes.
International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 2004 Vol.21 No.2, pp.105 - 131
Published online: 01 Apr 2004 *Full-text access for editors Access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article