Title: Source contribution of atmospheric aerosols in Bangkok metropolitan area by CMB8 receptor model
Authors: A. Wangkiat, N.W. Harvey, H. Garivait, S. Okamoto
Addresses: Joint Graduated School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Pacha-Uthit, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140, Thailand. ' Joint Graduated School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Pacha-Uthit, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140, Thailand. ' Environmental Research and Training Centre, Technopolis, Klong 5, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand. ' Tokyo University of Information Sciences, 1200-2 Yatoh-cho, Wakaba-ku, Chiba 2650072 Japan
Abstract: The CMB8 model was applied for source apportionment of particulate matter in Bangkok area. The 24 h of ambient data were collected and analysed for elemental composition during December 1996 to January 1997 by high volume air samplers at a station in Bangkok, Thailand. Seven source profiles and the average mass concentrations of 42 ambient data were used to run the chemical mass balance (CMB8) model. The source apportionment by CMB8 gave similar results comparing with factor analysis – multiple regression (FA–MR) model of the same data. The results revealed that major sources of particulate matter in Bangkok were: soil (33%), road dust (33%) and automobile (15%). The minor source contributions were: sea salt (4.34%), refuse incineration and biomass burning (0.84%), steel mill (0.62%) and fuel oil combustion (0.35%). The lack of source profile for biomass or open burning in Bangkok resulted in much lower predicted contribution of this source when compared to that from FA–MR. When apply this CMB8 model with daily ambient data, the result revealed that one fourth of daily CMB8 source apportionment had high value of 2 (>4). These exceedance values of Chi2 also point out that one of the selected sources (biomass burning) may not be the true contributing sources. Presumably, accurate biomass burning source profile is needed to improve the CMB calculation of source contributions for particulate matter in Bangkok metropolitan area.
Keywords: CMB8; receptor model; particulate matter; Bangkok; Thailand.
International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 2004 Vol.21 No.1, pp.80 - 96
Published online: 01 Apr 2004 *Full-text access for editors Access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article