Title: The diffusion of Bayh-Dole to Germany: did new public policy facilitate university patenting and commercialisation?

Authors: Heike M. Grimm

Addresses: University of Erfurt, Erfurt School of Public Policy, Nordhauser Str. 63, 99089 Erfurt, Germany

Abstract: New public policy enacted in Germany in 2002, intends to increase the number of patent registrations of academic entrepreneurs, and facilitate the commercialisation and spill-over of innovation generated at public universities. Results from a survey amongst university patentees of one German state (Thuringia) from 2009 are reported focused on government policy, university support and the role of technology transfer in an organisational and cultural context. Empirical findings show that new public policy contributed significantly to facilitate patent registrations but professional expertise for the commercialisation of knowledge, incentives and financial (or organisational) support schemes are still deficient. This article explains why patent registrations have slightly increased but also why universities report very low levels of commercialisation through entrepreneurship. Policy recommendations are offered to overcome the existent barriers, among them, the professionalisation and augmentation of technology transfer offices (in terms of staff, expertise and funding) or targeted marketing for registered patents.

Keywords: Bayh-Dole Act; patent procedures; legislation; USA; United States; Birch Bayh; Robert Dole; university patenting; university spin-offs; higher education; intellectual property; knowledge commercialisation; university patents; public policy; government instruments; Germany; patent registrations; academic entrepreneurs; innovation spill-over; public universities; patentees; Thuringia; government policies; university support; technology transfer; organisational support; cultural contexts; professional expertise; incentives; financial support; barriers; professionalisation; office augmentation; funding; staff resources; targeted marketing; registered patents; small and medium-sized enterprises; SMEs; academic entrepreneurship.

DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2011.039686

International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 2011 Vol.12 No.4, pp.459 - 478

Published online: 11 Oct 2014 *

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