Title: Comparison of Division I and Division III intercollegiate spectators: motives and constraints

Authors: Cindy Lee, Hyejin Bang

Addresses: College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6116, Room 236 Coliseum, Morgantown, WV 26506-6116, USA. ' College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6116, Room 236 Coliseum, Morgantown, WV 26506-6116, USA

Abstract: This study intended to examine the roles of motives and constraints in spectators| attendance in intercollegiate sports with team identification. Spectators in Division I and III were compared in their responses in dimensions of motives and constraints. Multiple analysis of variance was conducted to see the influence of motives and constraints on the number of games attended followed by hierarchical regression analysis to examine an interaction effects between motives and constraints. Results showed significant mean differences for dimensions of motives and constraints depending on divisions and the level of team identification. Fan attendance was found to be the result of negotiation between motives and constraints.

Keywords: spectator motivation; spectator constraints; intercollegiate athletics; fan behaviour; fan identification; sport marketing; team identification; sports fans; USA; United States.

DOI: 10.1504/IJLTM.2011.038887

International Journal of Leisure and Tourism Marketing, 2011 Vol.2 No.2, pp.159 - 175

Available online: 05 Mar 2011 *

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