Title: Review of biomechanical models for human shoulder complex

Authors: Jingzhoug Yang, Xuemei Feng, Joo H. Kim, Sudhakar Rajulu

Addresses: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX79409, USA. ' Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China. ' Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA. ' NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA

Abstract: The human shoulder plays an important role in human posture and motion, especially in scenarios in which humans need to achieve tasks with external loads. The complexity of the shoulder mechanism makes it difficult to model a shoulder complex realistically. Although many researchers have attempted to model the human shoulder complex, there has not been a survey of these models including their benefits and limitations. This paper attempts to review various biomechanical models proposed and summarise the pros and cons. It focuses mainly on the human modelling domain, although some of these models were originally from the robotics field. The models are divided into three major categories: open-loop chain models, closed-loop chain models and musculoskeletal shoulder models. The open-loop models are the simplest ones to represent the gross structure of the shoulder complex. Closed-loop models are closer to the real structure of the shoulder complex. Musculoskeletal models are more accurate representation of the actual shoulder complex.

Keywords: shoulder complex; digital human modelling; human simulation; biomechanical models; human shoulders; human motion; human posture; biomechanics; human factors; open-loop chain models; closed-loop chain models; musculoskeletal shoulder models.

DOI: 10.1504/IJHFMS.2010.036791

International Journal of Human Factors Modelling and Simulation, 2010 Vol.1 No.3, pp.271 - 293

Available online: 07 Nov 2010 *

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