Title: Role of final cover soil in regulating volatile organic compounds: emissions from solid waste disposal sites in developing countries

Authors: Wilai Chiemchaisri, Chart Chiemchaisri, Uncharee Khananthai, Sunil Kumar, Ajay Bharti, Maohong Fan

Addresses: Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, 50 Phaholyothin Rd., Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand; National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. ' Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, 50 Phaholyothin Rd., Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand; National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. ' Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, 50 Phaholyothin Rd., Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. ' National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020, India. ' North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, India. ' Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and School of Energy Resources, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA

Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the emission of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from solid waste disposal sites and their remediation at final cover soil. This research was conducted using field cover soil lysimeters placed at the surface of a solid waste dumping area and batch experiments in the laboratory. It was found that benzene, toluene, chloroform and perchloroethylene (PCE) were the major VOCs found in municipal solid wastes. Chloroform was found at highest concentration of 4240 ± 1215 nmol/m³ followed by benzene (831 ± 439 nmol/m³), PCE (478 ± 200 nmol/m³) and toluene (145 ± 93 nmol/m³). Batch experiments revealed that an increase in soil moisture content from 0% to 5% for clay and 0% to 10% for sandy loam reduced the adsorption of VOC on soil particles. Therefore, it is most important factor in controlling VOC emission from solid waste disposal site. The adsorption was increased with increasing VOC concentration in gaseous phase. By placing sandy loam and clay final cover soil layer, VOC emission from solid waste disposal site could be reduced by 60–99%.

Keywords: solid waste disposal; VOC; volatile organic compounds; adsorption; trace gas emissions; final cover soil; developing countries; bioremediation; municipal solid waste; benzene; toluene; chloroform; sandy loam; clay; perchloroethylene; PCE; soil moisture content.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEP.2010.035909

International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 2010 Vol.43 No.1/2/3, pp.3 - 15

Available online: 09 Oct 2010 *

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