Title: Statistical model of in-vehicle sound generated from highway rumble strips

Authors: Eric T. Donnell, H. Joseph Sommer, Philip M. Garvey, Scott C. Himes, Darren J. Torbic

Addresses: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 231N Sackett Building, University Park, PA 16802 USA. ' Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 337 Leonhard Building, University Park, PA 16802 USA. ' Thomas D. Larson Pennsylvania Transportation Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, 201 Transportation Research Building, University Park, PA 16802 USA. ' Thomas D. Larson Pennsylvania Transportation Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, 201 Transportation Research Building, University Park, PA 16802 USA. ' Midwest Research Institute, 2362 Raven Hollow Road, State College, PA 16801 USA

Abstract: Shoulder and centreline rumble strips are used on highways in the USA to prevent single-vehicle run-off-road and opposite direction crashes. Both rumble strip types have been shown to provide positive safety benefits on a variety of roadway types. The elevated in-vehicle sound and vibration levels produced by rumble strip patterns provide the alerting properties to warn drivers that their vehicles have left the intended travel lane. This study estimated a model of in-vehicle sound intensity, frequency, and duration using seemingly unrelated regression. The statistical model indicates that increasing the vehicle speed; rumble strip length, width, and groove depth; and using a milled versus a rolled rumble strip pattern, all increase the in-vehicle sound level relative to the ambient level. A rumble strip on the right-side of the travel lane; increasing the vehicle angle of departure; increasing the centre-to-centre spacing of the grooves; a concrete roadway surface; and a wet roadway surface, all decrease the in-vehicle sound relative to the ambient sound.

Keywords: rumble strips; sound levels; frequency; duration; in-vehicle noise; seemingly unrelated regression; SUR; highway safety; vehicle noise; bicyclists; USA; United States; vehicle vibration; driver warning.

DOI: 10.1504/IJVNV.2009.031134

International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration, 2009 Vol.5 No.4, pp.308 - 328

Available online: 21 Jan 2010 *

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