Title: Comparison of the environmental impact of five electric vehicle battery technologies using LCA

Authors: Julien Matheys, Jean-Marc Timmermans, Joeri Van Mierlo, Sandrine Meyer, Peter Van den Bossche

Addresses: Department of Electrotechnical Engineering and Energy Technology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. ' Department of Electrotechnical Engineering and Energy Technology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. ' Department of Electrotechnical Engineering and Energy Technology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. ' Centre for Economic and Social Studies of the Environment (CESSE), Universite Libre de Bruxelles Av. Jeanne 44 CP 124, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. ' Industrial Sciences and Technology (IWT) – Erasmushogeschool, Nijverheidskaai 170, 1070 Brussels, Belgium

Abstract: The environmental assessment of various electric vehicle battery technologies (lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium nickel-chloride, and lithium-ion) was performed in the context of the European end-of-life vehicles directive (2000/53/EC). An environmental single-score based on a life-cycle approach, was allocated to each of the studied battery technologies through the combined use of the Simapro® software and of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method Eco-indicator 99. The allocation of a single-score enables determining which battery technology is to be used preferably in electric vehicles and to indicate how to further improve the overall environmental friendliness of electric vehicles in the future.

Keywords: electric vehicles; battery technologies; environmental impact; life cycle analysis; LCA; sustainable manufacturing; EU Directive; end-of-life vehicles; EOL vehicles; sustainability.

DOI: 10.1504/IJSM.2009.023977

International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing, 2009 Vol.1 No.3, pp.318 - 329

Published online: 22 Mar 2009 *

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