Title: German Environmental Survey IV: environmental tobacco smoke exposure of German children

Authors: Andre Conrad, Margarete Seiwert, Christine Schulz, Kerstin Becker, Detlef Ullrich, Marike Kolossa-Gehring

Addresses: Toxicology, Health-related Environmental Monitoring, Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt), Germany. ' Toxicology, Health-related Environmental Monitoring, Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt), Germany. ' Toxicology, Health-related Environmental Monitoring, Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt), Germany. ' Toxicology, Health-related Environmental Monitoring, Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt), Germany. ' Health-related Exposure, Indoor Hygiene, Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt), Germany. ' Toxicology, Health-related Environmental Monitoring, Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt), Germany

Abstract: As the current extent of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure of children in Germany is unknown, it was investigated in the German Environmental Survey (GerES IV) for Children from 2003 to 2006 using questionnaires and analyses of cotinine in urine and benzene and formaldehyde in indoor air. About half of the 3- to 14-year-old children in Germany live in households with at least one smoker. Smoking at home is one of the most important predictors for benzene concentrations in indoor air. Cotinine concentrations in urine can be used to identify the levels of exposure to ETS. Multivariate analysis yields several relevant predictors for ETS exposure of children in Germany.

Keywords: ETS; environmental tobacco smoke; exposure; children; Germany; human biomonitoring; cotinine; benzene; formaldehyde; population study; Germany; child health; indoor environment; air pollution; passive smoking; air quality; second-hand smoking.

DOI: 10.1504/IJENVH.2008.020931

International Journal of Environment and Health, 2008 Vol.2 No.3/4, pp.397 - 409

Available online: 24 Oct 2008 *

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