Title: Quaternised biomass as anion exchanger for the removal of fluoride from water

Authors: C. Namasivayam, W.H. Hoell

Addresses: Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Technical Chemistry, Section WGT, P.O. Box 3640, D 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; Department of Environmental Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, India. ' Institute for Technical Chemistry, Section WGT, Karlsruhe Research Center, P.O. Box 3640, D 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany

Abstract: Dried Chinese Reed, a fast growing plant, was used as a model biomass for the development of anion exchangers using a quaternisation agent, N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (CHMAC), for the removal of fluoride from water. Parameters investigated in the adsorption studies include F concentration, agitation time, adsorbent dose and pH. Equilibrium adsorption data followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Presence of chloride, nitrate and sulfate decreased the adsorption significantly. Quaternised Hanf sativa and coconut coir pith (solid waste from coconut coir fibre industry) were also tested for the removal of fluoride with and without cross linking.

Keywords: fluoride removal; adsorption; quaternised biomass; isotherms; pH effect; desorption; interfering anions; Chinese reed; anion exchangers; fluoride pollution; biosorption.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEP.2008.020792

International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 2008 Vol.34 No.1/2/3/4, pp.203 - 214

Published online: 16 Oct 2008 *

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